2022年9月8日 星期四

How the Kremlin Is Forcing Ukrainians to Adopt Russian Life 俄國逼迫烏克蘭人接受俄式生活

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2022/09/09 第399期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份
紐時周報精選 How the Kremlin Is Forcing Ukrainians to Adopt Russian Life 俄國逼迫烏克蘭人接受俄式生活
Wealthy Friends May Be Ticket Out of Poverty 脫貧之道可能在於從小結交富友
How the Kremlin Is Forcing Ukrainians to Adopt Russian Life 俄國逼迫烏克蘭人接受俄式生活
文/Anton Troianovski, Valerie H


They have handed out Russian passports, cellphone numbers and set-top boxes for watching Russian television. They have replaced Ukrainian currency with the ruble, rerouted the internet through Russian servers and arrested hundreds who have resisted assimilation.


In ways big and small, the occupying authorities on territory won by Moscow's forces are using fear and indoctrination to compel Ukrainians to adopt a Russian way of life. "We are one people," blue-white-and-red billboards say. "We are with Russia."


Now comes the next act in President Vladimir Putin's 21st-century version of a war of conquest: the grassroots "referendum."


Russia-appointed administrators in cities like Kherson in Ukraine's south are setting the stage for a vote as early as September that the Kremlin will present as a popular desire to become part of Russia. They are recruiting pro-Russia locals for new "election commissions" and promoting to Ukrainian civilians the putative benefits of joining their country.


Any referendum would be totally illegitimate, Ukrainian and Western officials say, but it would carry ominous consequences. Analysts in Moscow and Ukraine expect that it would serve as a prelude to Putin's officially declaring the conquered area to be Russian territory, protected by Russian nuclear weapons — making future attempts by Ukraine to drive out Russian forces potentially much more costly.


Kherson is one of four regions in which officials are signaling planned referendums, along with Zaporizhzhia in the south and Luhansk and Donetsk in the east. While the Kremlin says it will be up to the area's residents to "determine their own future,"


As a result, a scramble to mobilize the residents of Russian-occupied territories for a referendum is increasingly visible on the ground.


The Russian-appointed authorities of the Zaporizhzhia and Kherson regions, for instance, announced that they were forming "election commissions" to prepare for referendums, which one official said could happen Sept. 11 — a day when local and regional elections are scheduled to be held across Russia.


"Russia is beginning to roll out a version of what you could call an annexation playbook," John Kirby, spokesperson for the National Security Council, said last month.


Wealthy Friends May Be Ticket Out of Poverty 脫貧之道可能在於從小結交富友
文/Claire Cain Miller, Josh Kat


Over the last four decades, the financial circumstances into which children have been born have increasingly determined where they have ended up as adults. But an expansive new study, based on billions of social media connections, has uncovered a powerful exception to that pattern that helps explain why certain places offer a path out of poverty.


For poor children, living in an area where people have more friendships that cut across class lines significantly increases how much they earn in adulthood, the new research found.


The study, published in Nature, analyzed the Facebook friendships of 72 million people, amounting to 84% of U.S. adults ages 25 to 44.


The new analysis — the biggest of its kind — found the degree to which the rich and poor were connected explained why a neighborhood's children did better later in life, more than any other factor.


The effect was profound. The study found that if poor children grew up in neighborhoods where 70% of their friends were wealthy — the typical rate for higher-income children — it would increase their future incomes by 20%, on average.


These cross-class friendships — what the researchers called economic connectedness — had a stronger impact than school quality, family structure, job availability or a community's racial composition. The people you know, the study suggests, open up opportunities, and the growing class divide in the United States closes them off.


"Growing up in a community connected across class lines improves kids' outcomes and gives them a better shot at rising out of poverty," said Raj Chetty, an economist at Harvard University and the director of Opportunity Insights, which studies the roots of inequality and the contributors to economic mobility. He was one of the study's four principal authors.


Jimarielle Bowie grew up in a lower-middle-class family. Her parents divorced, lost jobs and lost homes. So when she made friends in high school with girls who lived on the rich side of town, their lifestyles intrigued her. Their houses were bigger; they ate different foods; and their parents — doctors, lawyers and pastors — had different goals and plans for their children, including applying for college.


Bowie became the first person in her family to get a postgraduate degree. She's now a criminal defense lawyer — a job she found through a friend of one of those high school friends.


"My experience meeting people who were more affluent, I got to get in those circles, understand how those people think," she said. "I absolutely think it made a significant difference."


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