2017年12月8日 星期五

In Canada, Unraveling Centuries of Indigenous Land Claims加拿大處理原住民土地聲索難題 令人沮喪的龜速

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2017/12/15 第196期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份
紐時周報精選 In Canada, Unraveling Centuries of Indigenous Land Claims加拿大處理原住民土地聲索難題 令人沮喪的龜速
A Fresh Take on a 1934 'Murder'克莉絲蒂經典偵探小說 「東方快車謀殺案」重拍
In Canada, Unraveling Centuries of Indigenous Land Claims加拿大處理原住民土地聲索難題 令人沮喪的龜速
文/Ian Austen

Whenever Prime Minister Justin Trudeau or his Cabinet ministers speak in certain parts of Ontario or Quebec, they begin by acknowledging they are on "unceded Algonquin territory."

That recognition is just one of the ways Trudeau's government has been trying to signal a top priority: righting the wrongs Canada has done to indigenous people, especially over land that aboriginals say was taken from them unjustly.



But finding common ground on this issue has proved to be one of Trudeau's most difficult policy initiatives, and critics say efforts to resolve the land disputes have bogged down. But both sides agree on the importance of sorting out the claims.

"The process of negotiating land claims should be an absolute pillar of reconciliation," said Ken Coates, a historian at the University of Saskatchewan who studies treaties and is a consultant to indigenous groups. "This is our chance to get it right and if we don't — boy, when will we get the chance again?"


薩斯喀徹溫大學歷史學家肯恩.柯茨對條約有深入研究且是原住民團體的顧問,他說:「談判土地聲索的過程應該成為雙方和解的絕對支柱。這是我們導正錯誤的機會,若不這樣做,天哪,不知何時還有機會? 」

Of the many issues dividing Canada's federal and provincial governments from its indigenous people, land claims are among the most symbolically important and economically consequential, often involving vast amounts of territory.

Some claims involve hundreds of millions of dollars, and tribes are often interested in controlling the land at issue, by, for example, having a say over logging, oil exploration and mining.

在造成加拿大聯邦政府、省級政府與原住民間隔閡的諸多問題中 ,土地聲索是最具象徵意義與經濟重要性者之一,經常事關極大量的領土。


One claim by various Algonquin groups involves the 8.9 million acres of the Ottawa watershed — which includes Canada's Parliament buildings and Supreme Court. The government thought it had settled that claim in principle a year ago, but it has ended up in litigation anyway.

The claims are legally thorny, often requiring historians, archaeologists, geographers and geologists to give evidence sometimes stretching back before recorded history to support, or challenge, them.

各阿岡昆族群共同提出的聲索之一,是渥太華流域的890萬英畝土地,其上有加拿大國會大廈和最高法院。 政府認為1年前原則上已解決了這項聲索,不過到頭來還是成了對簿公堂。


In some regions, land may have been occupied by different indigenous groups at different times, even changing hands after battles that were unrecorded. These groups may all assert rights, and claims can overlap.

Then there is the problem of treaties. Some indigenous groups, like the Algonquins, never signed treaties giving up their land. The government says it is talking with about 140 indigenous groups in that situation.


接著還有條約問題。一些原住民族群如阿岡昆人,從未簽署過放棄他們土地的條約。 政府表示他們正與處於這種狀況下的約140個原住民族群進行談判。

Others did sign treaties, and a government tribunal that deals with treaty disputes has 72 cases and is so overwhelmed that it cannot estimate how long it will take to resolve them.

The result is that settlement negotiations occur at a frustratingly slow pace.





加拿大原住民聲稱(claim)他們的土地遭到不法奪走,因此透過法律途徑聲索(claim),這些土地聲索(land claim)有許多尚在對簿公堂中。claim意為聲稱時,與say的意義較接近, 如 He claimed that it was all a conspiracy against him.(他聲稱這一切都是為了對付他的一項陰謀。)claim意為聲索時,則與request(要求)意義接近,如The old man claimed the land. (這名老人(根據他的權利)要求得到這塊土地。)

當損失出現時,claim可當名詞或動詞用,意為「索賠」,如 a claim on delayed shipment.(因賣方未能按時出貨而索賠。)He claimed a casualty loss for the car.(他為汽車的意外損失提出索賠。)

A Fresh Take on a 1934 'Murder'克莉絲蒂經典偵探小說 「東方快車謀殺案」重拍
文/Roslyn Sulcas

A gruesome murder has been committed on a train in the middle of the night. Only 13 occupants of the carriage could have committed the dastardly deed. Was it a) the Russian princess; b) the American widow; c) the English governess; or d) the Hungarian count? Or any of the nine other multinational posh people and their servants rubbing shoulders on the luxury locomotive, snowbound in the middle of Eastern Europe, with a brilliant Belgian detective inconveniently in their midst?

Chances are this sounds familiar. It's the setup for one of the most famous detective stories in the world: Agatha Christie's 1934 novel "Murder on the Orient Express," which has sold millions of copies. It was made into a sumptuous 1974 movie, directed by Sidney Lumet with the starriest of casts (Lauren Bacall, Sean Connery, Ingrid Bergman!). It has been adapted for television, stage and radio. There is a Japanese television version and a computer game.



All this meant that Kenneth Branagh, the director and star of the new film version, which opened in the United States on Friday with the starriest of casts (Johnny Depp, Michelle Pfeiffer, Penélope Cruz, Judi Dench!), had his own mystery to solve. How do you reinvent one of the world's best-loved whodunits for a new era? Branagh's solution was to modify, and sometimes entirely change, character and plot details in ways that may dismay purists but that he felt would give the piece a more contemporary resonance.

"There is always the thorny issue of who will know the plot and how can we divert them," Branagh said in a telephone interview. "We knew we had to get people's attention for a recalibrated character in Poirot," Christie's idiosyncratic Belgian detective.



To that end, Branagh and the scriptwriter, Michael Green, begin the movie with a showdown at the Western Wall in Jerusalem, as the detective solves another mystery. "I wanted to embrace the exotic and worldly side of Christie, to come into the big, hot open skies and find a new Poirot, our ticket for an exotic adventure," Branagh said.

With an opening that has Poirot tripping up an escaping villain in a positively James Bond-esque manner, Branagh immediately established the detective as a far more dashing man of action than the novel's small hero "muffled up to the ears of whom nothing was visible but a pink-tipped nose and the two points of an upward curled mustache."




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