2019年7月22日 星期一

Mount Vernon: The Start of Historical Preservation 國家寶藏 弗農山莊

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Mount Vernon: The Start of Historical Preservation  國家寶藏 弗農山莊
by Lauren McCarthy


  Travel anywhere in the United States, and you are almost certain to be near a famous person’s home you can tour. Perhaps it’s a farmhouse that __1__ a notable 19th century writer, a palace built by a wealthy newspaper owner, or the residence of a well-known political figure. __2__ preserved and protected estates are a familiar sight in the US, this wasn’t always the case. In fact, it was the home of the country’s first president that started this preservation movement.
  Mount Vernon, the home of George Washington, was originally a Virginia plantation located on the banks of the Potomac River. The estate was owned by his ancestors, and Washington __3__ it from his late brother at the age of 22. The farm remained his home throughout the American Revolution and his presidency, and was where he died in 1799 when he was 67.
  Following his death, Mount Vernon was passed to various relations, but they were unable to maintain it. It slowly fell into disrepair, and an 1855 request to Congress to buy the __4__ was rejected. In 1858, the Mount Vernon Ladies’ Association purchased Mount Vernon with the aim of restoring it to its former glory. __5__ was this group notable because it was made up solely of women, but they also set a standard for future historic preservation projects. So next time you visit a home that looks just like it did in the past, you can thank a group of Virginia women for making that possible.
1. (A) turned into  (B) served as  (C) resulted from  (D) belonged to
2. (A) While  (B) Unless  (C) Since  (D) Whether
3. (A) observed  (B) abandoned  (C) inherited  (D) established
4. (A) territory  (B) property  (C) dormitory  (D) community
5. (A) Not until  (B) No wonder  (C) Not only  (D) No longer

 mount n. ……峰/山(用於山名中)
 farmhouse n. 農舍
 palace n. 豪宅;王宮
 estate n. 莊園(可數);房地產/不動產(不可數)
 plantation n. 農莊,農園
 bank n. 河岸
 presidency n. 總統任期/職位
 Congress n. 美國國會(大寫)
 association n. 協會;聯盟

1. Perhaps it’s a farmhouse that belonged to a notable 19th century writer, a palace built by a wealthy newspaper owner...
a. (A) turn into...  轉變成……
•After months of cold weather, everyone was excited about winter turning into spring.
(B) serve as...  作……用,充當……
•Our garage also serves as a tool shed.
(C) result from...  起因於??
= derive from... / stem from...
•Skin cancer usually results from too much exposure to the sun.
(D) belong to...  是……的,屬於……
•This old watch belonged to my great grandfather.
b. 根據語意,也許你到美國旅遊時會在十九世紀名作家「的」農舍,或是有錢報社老闆建造的豪宅等住所附近,故答案選 (D)。

2. While preserved and protected estates are a familiar sight in the US, this wasn’t always the case.
a. 本題測試以下副詞連接詞的用法:
(A) while 可表「儘管,雖然」,等於 though 或 although,其所引導的副詞子句通常置於句首,其後加逗點,再接主要子句。
•While you may be rich, that doesn’t mean you can boss people around.
(B) unless 表「除非」,等於 if not,其所引導的副詞子句可置於句首或句中。
•Unless you decide to drive there this weekend, I will take the train to the beach.
(C) since 可表「因為」,等於 because,此時其後引導的副詞子句及所修飾的主要子句可用一般時態。
•Since she has lots of money, Lily can afford a new house.
(D) whether 表「不論是否」,與 or 連用,表示無論是哪種可能性,結果都一樣。
•Whether we go by bus or train, we are still going to be late for school.
b. 根據語意,「儘管」被保存維護的莊園在美國是個熟悉的景象,過去並不總是如此,故答案選 (A)。

3. ... and Washington inherited it from his late brother at the age of 22.
a. (A) observe vt. 遵行(法律、習俗);慶祝(節日);觀察
•All of us must observe these regulations.
(B) abandon vt. 拋棄,遺棄
•We abandoned our homes due to the war.
(C) inherit vt. 繼承;遺傳(某特徵)
inherit sth from sb  從某人繼承/遺傳到某物
•Al inherited a large fortune from his father.
(D) establish vt. 建立,創立
•Mr. Su established a free medical clinic.
b. 根據語意,華盛頓在二十二歲時從已故兄長那裡「繼承」了弗農山莊,且 “inherit sth from sb” 為固定用法,故 (C) 項應為正選。

4. It slowly fell into disrepair, and an 1855 request to Congress to buy the property was rejected.
a. (A) territory n. 領土,屬地
•The two countries are fighting over a small piece of territory.
(B) property n. 房地產
•The price of property has risen lately.
(C) dormitory n. 宿舍
•The school dormitory can only accommodate 200 students.
(D) community n. 社區
•Nancy lives in a small community outside the city.
b. 本句的代名詞 It 指的是弗農山莊,可知在 1855 年有人向國會請求購買該「房產」,故答案選 (B)。

5. Not only was this group notable because..., but they also...
a. 本題測試下列固定用法:
not only... but (also)...  不僅……而且……
= not only... but... as well
“not only... but (also)...” 為對等連接詞片語,可連接對等的單字、片語或子句;若連接對等的主要子句時,not only 後的第一個主要子句要倒裝。but also 僅為連接詞,故其後的第二個主要子句不須倒裝。
Not only was Mark late for class, but he (also) forgot to bring his homework.
b. 根據上述用法且由第二個主要子句的 but they also 可知,(C) 項應為正選。

1. be certain to V  注定要……
= be sure to V
= be bound to V
•Don’t put my sweater in the dryer because it would be certain to shrink.

2. at the age of + 年紀  在……歲時
•Believe it or not, Bob became a millionaire at the age of 25.

3. be unable to V  無法做……
= be incapable of V-ing
•Since he is too busy, Larry is unable to take on the new project.

4. fall into disrepair  變得破敗不堪
disrepair n.(建築物、道路等)破損/失修
•The building has fallen into disrepair over the years.

5. with the aim of V-ing  為了……
•Rita moved to New York with the aim of seeking fame and fortune.

6. be made up of...  由……組成
= consist of...
= be composed of...
•This class is made up of 20 students.

7. set a standard  設立標準
•Our goal is to set a standard of good living for our children.

1. historical a. 歷史的;與歷史有關的
historic a. 有歷史意義的
•Grandma told us about the historical events she had lived through.

2. preservation n. 保存,保護
preserve vt. 保存;儲存(本文為過去分詞作形容詞用)
•All the books in the library are in a good state of preservation.

3. notable a. 著名的,顯著的
•Sunflowers is one of Vincent van Gogh’s most notable paintings.

4. wealthy a. 有錢的,富裕的
•The wealthy man has his own private island.

5. residence n. 住宅
•Paul spent two months at his summer residence last year.

6. political a. 政治(上)的
•The mayor was forced to step down after his involvement in a political scandal.

7. originally adv. 原本,最初
•This project has taken much longer than Jacob originally planned.

8. ancestor n. 祖先
•Mr. Weber’s ancestors came from Germany.

9. revolution n. 革命
•There is a revolution taking place in that country.

10. various a. 許多不同的,各式各樣的
•This vacuum cleaner comes with various attachments.

11. relation n. 親戚,家人;關係
•Some of Robert’s relations came to see him for the first time in 10 years.

12. request n. & vt. 請求,要求
make a request  請求
•Sam made a request for a raise after working at the company for two years.

13. purchase vt. & n. 購買
•Ricky purchased his children’s Christmas gifts at the new toy store.

14. restore vt. 恢復;修復
•The good job you did on the last project restored my confidence in you.

15. glory n. 輝煌;光榮,榮耀
•The castle reminds us of the past glory of the kingdom.

16. solely adv. 完全地;僅僅(= only)
•Eddie failed solely because he was lazy.

reject vt. 駁回,拒絕
•I felt sad when the manager rejected my proposal.
a. refuse vi. & vt. 拒絕
•I asked Ray to do me a favor, but he refused.
b. decline vt. 婉拒,拒絕
•David wanted to give me a ride home, but I politely declined his offer.
c. deny vt. 拒絕給予
•Women in that country are denied the right to vote.
d. disapprove vt. 駁回(請願、建議等)
•The project was disapproved by the boss.
e. dismiss vt. 駁回,不理會
•In light of the new evidence, the judge is going to dismiss the case.
f. turn down... / turn... down  拒絕……
•I have to turn down your invitation because I am too busy.

國家寶藏 弗農山莊

  喬治.華盛頓的故居弗農山莊原本是個位在波多馬克河河岸、維吉尼亞州的農莊。該莊園的擁有者是他的祖先,而華盛頓在二十二歲時從已故兄長那裡繼承了它。這座農莊在美國革命時期及其總統任期內都是他的家園,而他於 1799 年在那裡與世長辭(享壽六十七歲)。
  在他過世後,弗農山莊被傳給形形色色的親戚,但他們都無法好好維護它。它慢慢變得破舊不堪,且在 1855 年有人向國會請求購買該房產時遭到駁回。1858 年,弗農山莊婦女協會買下弗農山莊,目的是要恢復其昔日輝煌。這個團體出名的原因不僅是因為它全由婦女組成,也因為她們為將來的歷史保存計畫樹立了標準。所以下次你造訪一個看起來跟過去一樣的家園時,就可以感謝一群維吉尼亞州的女性使之成為可能。
1. D 2. A 3. C 4. B 5. C

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