2018年2月2日 星期五


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2018/02/02 第202期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份
紐時周報精選 不算漂亮但很難忽視 科技業改變舊金山天際線
多倫多未來城 引發「1984」式關切
不算漂亮但很難忽視 科技業改變舊金山天際線
San Francisco's Skyline, Now Inexorably Transformed by Tech

The skyscraper came late to this city, a shipping and manufacturing hub for much of its existence. The wealthy roosted on the hills, and the masses toiled on the flats and the docks. Everyone lived close to the ground in a setting renowned for its natural beauty.

Now the things being shipped are virtual, and vast amounts of office space are needed to design, build and market them. Salesforce, a company that did not exist 20 years ago, took up residence Jan. 8 in the new Salesforce Tower, which at 1,070 feet is the tallest office building west of the Mississippi.



本月初啟用的Salesforce大樓(右)改變舊金山的天際線。 (美聯社)

本月初啟用的Salesforce大樓(右)改變舊金山的天際線。 (美聯社)

In Silicon Valley, the office parks blend into the landscape. They might have made their workers exceedingly rich, they might have changed the world — whether for better or worse is currently up for debate — but there is nothing about them that says: We are a big deal.

Skyscrapers tell a different story. They are the pyramids of our civilization, permanent monuments of our existence. They show who is in charge and what they think about themselves. Salesforce Tower broke a San Francisco height record that had stood for nearly half a century.



"A ceiling has been breached," said Alison Isenberg, a professor of urban history at Princeton University. "Now the discussion becomes is this just a building that is taller than the ones we already had, or does it raise new questions about the nature of the city?"

Salesforce Tower is visible from just about everywhere. Go to the farthest edges of the city, and its 61 stories of tapered steel and glass stick up like a forceful thumb. On the drive north from the airport, the tower is the one building discernible over Potrero Hill. From the distant North Bay, it is the first thing you notice as San Francisco sheds its customary morning fog. The building catches the morning sun, dazzling the way none of its lesser neighbors do.



The tower is not beautiful, but is impossible to ignore. The top floors are set off from the rest, and the crown is flat rather than a spire. It looks as if a rocket were stowed up there, an escape vehicle for the tech overlords when the city is consumed by disaster.

It will have to be a big rocket, because there are so many overlords. While few were looking, tech ate San Francisco, a development encouraged by Mayor Ed Lee, who unexpectedly died last month. There are now 79,129 high-tech jobs in the city, about triple the number a decade ago, according to a new research report from the real estate firm CBRE.



文/David Streitfeld 譯/李京倫


本文談的是科技公司進駐美國西部最高辦公大樓,顯示科技業在舊金山的主導地位。密西西比河(Mississippi River)是北美最大水系和最長的河流,一般以這條河作為美國東西部的分界線。

摩天大樓(skyscraper)一詞首見1880年代美國第一批摩天樓興建時。19世紀後半葉,美國都市商業日益發達,對辦公空間需求增大,摩天樓便應運而生。世界第一棟摩天樓是1885年建成的美國芝加哥家庭保險大樓,樓高10層,是第一棟使用鋼梁(steel-girder)的建築物。人類能興建摩天樓,主要是因為幾項技術同時發展到位:量產鋼材、發明安全快速的電梯、測量並分析結構荷重與應力(structural loads and stresses)。

Salesforce大樓很重要的意義是,它是美國以科技公司為「主要租客」(anchor tenant)的最高樓。主要租客是第一個承租百貨商場或大樓空間的公司,通常也是最大的公司,名聲響亮,能吸引其他租客和顧客。


多倫多未來城 引發「1984」式關切
文/Ian Austen

Plan for Toronto City of Future Raises Concerns Out of '1984'

For a city striving to become a major technology center, it was a prize catch: A Google corporate sibling would spend the coming year planning a futuristic metropolis in a derelict part of Toronto's waterfront.

When announcing this past fall that the company, Sidewalk Labs, had been chosen to create a city of tomorrow, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau of Canada promised the project would create "technologies that will help us build smarter, greener, more inclusive" communities. Even the nasty weather off Lake Ontario would be tamed, the developer pledged.



圖擷取自Sidewalk Labs

圖擷取自Sidewalk Labs

But tempering the excitement of some Toronto residents are concerns that are perhaps inevitable when it comes to a company renowned for collecting and analyzing data.

Quayside, as the project is known, will be laden with sensors and cameras tracking everyone who lives, works or merely passes through the area. In what Sidewalk calls a marriage of technology and urbanism, the resulting mass of data will be used to further shape and refine the new city. Lifting a term from its online sibling, the company calls the Toronto project "a platform."



But extending the surveillance powers of one of the world's largest technology companies from the virtual world to the real one raises privacy concerns for many residents.

"It will be a political issue no matter what," said Shauna Brail, the director of the University of Toronto's urban studies program.

Quayside is the most significant new project for Sidewalk Labs, an urban technologies company that is part of Alphabet, Google's parent company. Set up in 2015, it is headed by Daniel L. Doctoroff, a former New York City deputy mayor and former chief executive of Bloomberg.




Pretty much everything in Quayside will be reimagined. Buildings will be prefabricated for the most part, and will be highly energy-efficient; breaking with traditional zoning rules, they will not have fixed uses. Packages will be delivered by robot; other robots will pick up the garbage.

But its data-collection capability may be the greatest distinction, and source of opposition, for the Sidewalk plan. Sensors inside buildings will measure such things as noise, while an array of cameras and outdoor sensors will track everything from air pollution to the movement of people and vehicles. The data gathered will influence long-term planning and development.



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